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Research On Ceramic Fittings To Support Affordable Housing

Kenya has an estimated 12.1 million households with an annual demand of 250,000 housing units against a yearly supply of fewer than 50,000 units. Materials and components account for 60% of the total construction cost; this statistic translates into more than double the sanitary wares required to meet housing demand per annum. One of the challenges encountered in housing provision is escalating building costs attributed to inadequate innovation in low-cost building technology, building materials, and components. Close to 21 million people in Kenya use unsanitary or shared latrines. Reports show that only two in three households have satisfactory sanitation facilities. 5.6 million people lack latrines and defecate in open spaces, alleys, bushes, forests, or grasslands polluting the environment and spreading diseases such as diarrhea and cholera. The aim of this research was to investigate local materials that can be used in the design and production of sustainable, low-cost ceramic toilets, not only to bridge the diverse issues of sanitation and health but also to provide an affordable building material and component solution to support affordable housing. The research sought to address issues of industrialization and universal health propounded and spur manufacturing and meaningful employment opportunities.